Era 4

EXPANDING ZONES OF EXCHANGE AND ENCOUNTER 300-1000 CE

Giving Shape to World History

Beginning about 300 CE almost the entire region of Eurasia and northern Africa experienced severe disturbances. By the seventh century, however, peoples of Eurasia and Africa entered a new period of more intensive interchange and cultural creativity. Underlying these developments was the growing sophistication of systems for moving people and goods here and there throughout the hemisphere -- China's canals, trans-Saharan camel caravans, high-masted ships plying the Indian Ocean. These networks tied diverse peoples together across great distances. In Eurasia and Africa a single region of intercommunication was taking shape that ran from the Mediterranean to the China seas. A widening zone of interchange also characterized Mesoamerica.

Beyond these developments, a sweeping view of world history reveals three other broad patterns of change that are particularly conspicuous in this era

Why Study This Era?

What Students Should Understand

Standard 1: Imperial crises and their aftermath, 300-700 CE

A. The decline of the Roman and Han empires [CORE]

B. The expansion of Christianity and Buddhism beyond the lands of their origin [CORE]

C. The synthesis of Hindu civilization in India in the era of the Gupta Empire [CORE]

D. Hindu and Buddhist expansion in Southeast Asia in the first millennium CE [RELATED]

Standard 2: Causes and consequences of the rise of Islamic civilization in the 7th-10th centuries

A. The emergence of Islam and how Islam spread in Southwest Asia, North Africa, and Europe [CORE]

B. The significance of the Abbasid Caliphate as a center of cultural innovation and hub of interregional trade in the 8th-10th centuries [CORE]

C. The consolidation of the Byzantium in the context of expanding Islamic civilization [RELATED]

Standard 3: Major developments in East Asia in the era of the Tang dynasty, 600-900 CE

A. Political and cultural expansion in Tang China [CORE]

B. Chinese influence on the peoples of Inner Asia, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan [RELATED]

Standard 4: The search for political, social, and cultural redefinition in Europe, 500-1000 CE

A. The foundations of a new civilization in Western Christendom in the 500 years following the breakup of the western Roman empire [CORE]

B. The coalescence of political and social order in Europe [RELATED]

Standard 5: State-building in Northeast and West Africa and the southward migrations of Bantu-speaking peoples [CORE]

Standard 6: The rise of centers of civilization in Mesoamerica and Andean South America in the first millennium CE

A. The origins, expansion, and achievements of Maya civilization [CORE]

B. The rise of the Teotihuacan, Zapotec/Mixtec, and Moche civilizations [RELATED]


STANDARD 1

Students ShouldUnderstand: Imperial crises and their aftermath, 300-700 CE

Students Should Be Able to:

1A Demonstrate understanding of the decline of the Roman and Han empires by:

5-12 Analyzing various causes that historians have proposed to account for the decline of the Han and Roman empires. [Evaluate major debates among historians]

5-12 Tracing the migrations and military movements of major pastoral nomadic groups into both the Roman Empire and China. [Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration]

7-12 Comparing the consequences of these movements in China and the western part of the Roman Empire. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

9-12 Analyzing comparatively the collapse of the western part of the Roman Empire and the survival of the eastern part. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas]

9-12 Describing the consolidation of the Byzantine state after the breakup of the Roman Empire, and assessing how Byzantium transmitted ancient traditions and created a new Christian civilization. [Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration]

Grades 5-6 Examples of student achievement of Standard 1A include:

Grades 7-8 Examples of student achievement of Standard 1A include:

Grades 9-12 Examples of student achievement of Standard 1A include:

Students Should Be Able to:

1B Demonstrate understanding of the expansion of Christianity and Buddhism beyond the lands of their origin by:

5-12 Assessing how Christianity and Buddhism won converts among culturally diverse peoples across wide areas of Afro-Eurasia. [Demonstrate and explain the influence of ideas]

7-12 Analyzing causal connections between the breakup of the unified Roman and Han empires and the spread of Christianity and Buddhism. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

7-12 Analyzing comparatively the changing image and status of women in early Christian and Buddhist societies. [Compare and contrast differing values, behaviors, and institutions]

Grades 5-6 Examples of student achievement of Standard 1B include:

Grades 7-8 Examples of student achievement of Standard 1B include:

Grades 9-12 Examples of student achievement of Standard 1B include:

Students Should Be Able to:

1C Demonstrate understanding of the synthesis of Hindu civilization in India in the era of the Gupta Empire by:

5-12 Describing fundamental features of the Hindu belief system as they emerged in the early first millennium CE [Evidence historical perspectives]

7-12 Explaining the rise of the Gupta Empire, and analyzing factors that contributed to the empire's stability and economic prosperity. [Analyze multiple causation]

7-12 Analyzing how Hinduism responded to the challenges of Buddhism and prevailed as the dominant faith in India. [Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration]

7-12 Analyzing the basis of social relationships in India and the social and legal position of women during the Gupta era. [Interrogate historical data]

5-12 Evaluating Gupta achievements in art, literature, and mathematics. [Evidence historical perspective]

9-12 Analyzing the Gupta decline and the importance of Hun invasions in the empire's disintegration. [Analyze multiple causation]

Grades 5-6 Examples of student achievement of Standard 1C include:

Grades 7-8 Examples of student achievement of Standard 1C include:

Grades 9-12 Examples of student achievement of Standard 1C include:

Students Should Be Able to:

1 D Demonstrate understanding of the expansion of Hindu and Buddhist traditions in Southeast Asia in the first millennium CE by:

5-12 Assessing the relationship between long-distance trade of Indian and Malay peoples and the introduction of Hindu and Buddhist traditions in Southeast Asia. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

7-12 Evaluating monumental religious architecture as evidence for the spread of Buddhist and Hindu belief and practice in Southeast Asia. [Draw upon visual sources]

9-12 Explaining how aspects of Buddhism and Hinduism were combined in Southeast Asian religious life. [Interrogate historical data]

5-12 Explaining how Malayo-Polynesian peoples of East and Southeast Asian origin settled the Pacific islands and New Zealand. [Evidence historical perspectives]

Grades 5-6 Examples of student achievement of Standard 1D include:

Grades 7-8 Examples of student achievement of Standard 1D include:

Grades 9-12 Examples of student achievement of Standard 1D include:


STANDARD 2

Students Should Understand: Causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries.

Students Should Be Able to:

2A Demonstrate understanding of the emergence of Islam and how Islam spread in Southwest Asia, North Africa, and Europe by:

9-12 Analyzing the political, social, and religious problems confronting the Byzantine and Sassanid Persian empires in the 7th century and the commercial role of Arabia in the Southwest Asian economy. [Analyze multiple causation]

5-12 Describing the life of Muhammad, the development of the early Muslim community, and the basic teachings and practices of Islam. [Assess the importance of the individual]

7-12 Explaining how Muslim forces overthrew the Byzantines in Syria and Egypt and the Sassanids in Persia and Iraq. [Interrogate historical data]

5-12 Analyzing how Islam spread in Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean region. [Analyze the influence of ideas]

9-12 Analyzing how the Arab Caliphate became transformed into a Southwest Asian and Mediterranean empire under the Umayyad dynasty, and explaining how the Muslim community became divided into Sunni and Shi'ite Muslim groups. [Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration]

7-12 Analyzing Arab Muslim success in founding an empire stretching from western Europe to India and China, and describing the diverse religious, cultural, and geographic factors that influenced the ability of the Muslim government to rule. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

Grades 5-6 Examples of student achievement of Standard 2A include:

Grades 7-8 Examples of student achievement of Standard 2A include:

Grades 9-12 Examples of student achievement of Standard 2A include:

Students Should Be Able to:

2B Demonstrate understanding of the significance of the Abbasid Caliphate as a center of cultural innovation and hub of interregional trade in the 8th-10th centuries by:

9-12 Comparing Abbasid government and military institutions with those of Sassanid Persia and Byzantium. [Compare and contrast differing values and institutions]

7-12 Analyzing why the Abbasid state became a center of Afro-Eurasian commercial and cultural exchange. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

5-12 Analyzing the sources and development of Islamic law and the influence of Islamic law and Muslim practice on such areas as family life, moral behavior, marriage, women's status, inheritance, justice, and slavery. [Examine the influence of ideas]

7-12 Describing the emergence of a center of Islamic civilization in Iberia and evaluating its economic and cultural achievements. [Evidence historical perspectives]

9-12 Describing the cultural and social contributions of various ethnic and religious communities, particularly the Christian and Jewish, in the Abbasid lands and Iberia. [Evidence historical perspectives]

7-12 Evaluating Abbasid contributions to such fields as mathematics, science, medicine, and literature, and the preservation of Greek learning. [Interrogate historical data]

5-12 Assessing how Islam won converts among culturally diverse peoples across wide areas of Afro-Eurasia. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

Grades 5-6 Examples of student achievement of Standard 2B include:

Grades 7-8 Examples of student achievement of Standard 2B include:

Grades 9-12 Examples of student achievement of Standard 2B include:

Students Should Be Able to:

2C Demonstrate understanding of the consolidation of the Byzantine state in the context of expanding Islamic civilization by:

5-12 Explaining how the Byzantine state withstood Arab Muslim attacks between the 8th and 10th centuries. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

9-12 Comparing Byzantium's imperial political system with that of the Abbasid state. [Compare and contrast differing values and institutions]

7-12 Evaluating the Byzantine role in preserving and transmitting ancient Greek learning. [Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration]

9-12 Analyzing the expansion of Greek Orthodox Christianity into the Balkans and Kievan Russia between the 9th and 11th centuries. [Analyze multiple causation]

Grades 5-6 Examples of student achievement of Standard 2C include:

Grades 7-8 Examples of student achievement of Standard 2C include:

Grades 9-12 Examples of student achievement of Standard 2C include:


STANDARD 3

Students Should Understand: Major developments in East Asia in the era of the Tang dynasty, 600-900 CE

Students Should Be Able to:

3A Demonstrate understanding of China's sustained political and cultural expansion in the Tang period by:

9-12 Describing political centralization and economic reforms that marked China's reunification under the Sui and Tang dynasties. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

5-12 Describing the territorial expansion of the empire to Southeast and Central Asia. [Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration]

5-12 Describing the cosmopolitan diversity of peoples and religions in Chinese cities of the early- and mid-Tang period. [Evaluate historical perspectives]

7-12 Assessing explanations for the spread and power of Buddhism in Tang China, Korea, and Japan. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

7-12 Evaluating creative achievements in painting and poetry in relation to the values of Tang society. [Evidence historical perspectives]

Grades 5-6 Examples of student achievement of Standard 3A include:

Grades 7-8 Examples of student achievement of Standard 3A include:

Grades 9-12 Examples of student achievement of Standard 3A include:

Students Should Be Able to:

3B Demonstrate understanding of Chinese influence on the peoples of Inner Asia, Korea, Southeast Asia, and Japan by:

7-12 Explaining how relations between China and pastoral peoples of Inner Asia in the Tang period reflect long-term patterns of interaction along China's grassland frontier. [Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration]

9-12 Analyzing changes in Inner Asia, Korea, and Vietnam under the impact of Tang state and culture. [Marshal evidence of antecedent circumstances]

5-12 Describing the indigenous development of Japanese society up to the 7th century CE [Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration]

7-12 Assessing the patterns of borrowing and adaptation of Chinese culture in Japanese society from the 7th to the 11th century. [Analyze the influence of ideas]

5-12 Describing the establishment of the imperial state in Japan, and assessing the role of the emperor in government. [Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration]

5-12 Assessing the political, social, and cultural contributions of women in the Japanese imperial court. [Evidence historical perspectives]

Grades 5-6 Examples of student achievement of Standard 3B include:

Grades 7-8 Examples of student achievement of Standard 3B include:

Grades 9-12 Examples of student achievement of Standard 3B include:


STANDARD 4

Students Should Understand: The search for political, social, and cultural redefinition in Europe, 500-1000 CE

Students Should Be Able to:

4A Demonstrate understanding of the foundations of a new civilization in Western Christendom in the 500 years following the breakup of the western Roman Empire by:

5-12 Assessing the importance of monasteries, the Latin Church, and missionaries from Britain and Ireland in the Christianizing of western and central Europe. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

5-12 Explaining the development of the Merovingian and Carolingian states, and assessing their success at maintaining public order and local defense in western Europe. [Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration]

7-12 Analyzing how the preservation of Greco-Roman and early Christian learning in monasteries and Charlemagne's royal court contributed to the emergence of European civilization. [Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration]

7-12 Analyzing the changing political relations between the popes and the secular rulers of Europe. [Identify issues and problems of the past]

9-12 Comparing the successes of the Latin and Orthodox churches in introducing Christianity and Christian culture to eastern Europe. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas]

Grades 5-6 Examples of student achievement of Standard 4A include:

Grades 7-8 Examples of student achievement of Standard 4A include:

Grades 9-12 Examples of student achievement of Standard 4A include:

Students Should Be Able to:

4B Demonstrate understanding of the coalescence of political and social order in Europe by:

5-12 Assessing the impact of Norse (Viking) and Magyar migrations and invasions, as well as internal conflicts, on the emergence of independent lords and the knightly class. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

7-12 Assessing changes in the legal, social, and economic status of peasants in the 9th and 10th centuries. [Interrogate historical data]

7-12 Analyzing how Christian values changed the social and economic status of women in early medieval Europe. [Examine the influence of ideas]

9-12 Explaining how royal officials such as counts and dukes transformed delegated powers into hereditary, autonomous power over land and people in the 9th and 10th centuries. [Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration]

Grades 5-6 Examples of student achievement of Standard 4B include:

Grades 7-8 Examples of student achievement of Standard 4B include:

Grades 9-12 Examples of student achievement of Standard 4B include:


STANDARD 5

Students Should Understand: State-building in Northeast and West Africa and the southward migrations of Bantu-speaking peoples.

Students Should Be Able to:

5 Demonstrate understanding of state-building in Northeast and West Africa and the southward migrations of Bantu-speaking peoples by:

9-12 Analyzing how maritime trade contributed to thegrowth of the kingdom of Aksum in Northeast Africa. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

9-12 Analyzing how the contrasting natural environments of West Africa defined agricultural production, settlement patterns, and trade. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

7-12 Explaining how Ghana became West Africa's first large-scale empire and the role of divine kingship in itsdevelopment. [Interrogate historical data]

7-12 Assessing the importance of gold and salt production, trans-Saharan camel trade, and Islam in the growth of the Ghana empire and urbanization in West Africa. [Analyze multiple causation]

9-12 Inferring from archaeological evidence the importance of Jenn-E-jeno or Kumbi-Saleh as early West African commercia cities. [Interrogate historical data]

9-12 Analyzing causes and consequences of the settling of east, central, and southern Africa by Bantu-speaking farmers and cattle herders up to 1000 CE. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

Grades 5-6 Examples of student achievement of Standard 5 include:

Grades 7-8 Examples of student achievement of Standard 5 include:

Grades 9-12 Examples of student achievement of Standard 5 include:


STANDARD 6

Students Should Understand: The rise of centers of civilization in Mesoamerica and Andean South America in the first millennium CE.

Students Should Be Able to:

6A Demonstrate understanding of the origins, expansion, and achievements of Maya civilization by:

5-12 Describing the natural environment of southern Mesoamerica and its relationship to the development of Maya urban society. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

7-12 Analyzing the Mayan system of agricultural production and trade and its relationship to the rise of city-states. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

9-12 Interpreting the Mayan cosmic world view as evidenced in art and architecture, and evaluating Mayan achievements in astronomy, mathematics, and the development of a calendar. [Evaluate historical perspectives]

5-12 Analyzing the role and status of elite women in Mayan society as evidenced in monumental architecture or other sources. [Draw upon visual sources]

7-12 Assessing interpretations of how and why Mayan civilization declined. [Evaluate major debates among historians]

Grades 5-6 Examples of student achievement of Standard 6A include:

Grades 7-8 Examples of student achievement of Standard 6A include:

Grades 9-12 Examples of student achievement of Standard 6A include:

Students Should Be Able to:

6B Demonstrate understanding of the rise of the Teotihuaca'n,Zapotec/Mixtec, and Moche civilizations by:

7-12 Analyzing the character of the Zapotec state in the valley of Oaxaca as reflected in the art and architecture of Monte Alb'n. [Draw upon visual sources]

9-12 Explaining the growth of the urban society centered on Teotihuaca'n and the importance of this city as a transmitter of Mesoamerican cultural traditions to later societies. [Examine the influence of ideas]

5-12 Analyzing how the diverse natural environment of the Andes region shaped systems of agriculture and animal herding. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

7-12 Describing how archaeological discoveries have led to greater understanding of the character of Moche society. [Hold interpretations of history as tentative]

Grades 5-6 Examples of student achievement of Standard 6B include:

Grades 7-8 Examples of student achievement of Standard 6B include:

Grades 9-12 Examples of student achievement of Standard 6B include: